Author Archives: Charles Nonde

About Charles Nonde

Public Information Assistant at UN Information Centre, Lusaka Zambia.

United Nations Zambia in promotion of Youth Participation

By Shiho Kuwahara, University Volunteer, UNIC Lusaka

In order to promote youth participation in development, the United Nations in Zambia has in

A UNYPP member participates in an SDG awareness creation activit in Lusaka. Photo: UNIC/Lusaka/2017/Maseko

A UNYPP member participates in an SDG awareness creation activity in Lusaka. Photo: UNIC/Lusaka/2017/Maseko

partnership with the Zambian Government, through the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Child Development put together a group of youth with representation from all 10 provinces of Zambia under the UN Youth Partnership Platform-Zambia (UNYPP-Z). The group consists of youth aged between 15 to 35 years who are willing to work with UN Zambia, the Government and other partners on challenges of young people’s development and promote youth participation in decision making processes. UNYPP-Z is dealing with policies, programme development for young people as well as monitoring and evaluation.

There UNYPP-Z aims to facilitate knowledge and information sharing about youth policies and programmes, to create greater awareness on both international and domestic policies among youth groups and youth-serving partners, to strengthen the partnership between the UN and youth for meaningful youth participation in the development activities. The group also seeks to identify and raise issues and innovative programme delivery models for young people’s needs.

The Zambia UN Youth Partnership Platform includes a total of 23 members with one representative from each province being a focal point of each National Youth Policy Thematic areas such as education, employment and entrepreneurship, health and protection of rights and civic engagement.

“The Ministry of Youth and Sports and the UN made selections of the UNYPP members following criteria such as age, gender balance, and educational or professional backgrounds and UN areas of focus,” said Francis Jere, UNYPP Zambia President.

“Young people are able to deepen their knowledge about development policies and activities, and take some action making use of it. On the other hand, the UN can get recommendations on priorities for the UN’s programmes in Zambia from the youth perspective and identify their actual needs, added Jere.

The tenure for the members is two years and those who have completed their terms can still continue to contribute to UNYPP-Z activities in terms of mentoring for new members. In addition, previous members remain resource persons for future youth related activities of the UN which need networking and collaboration.

Youth participation in development is key because they are the future. Youth participation is also a demonstration of the theme of “Leaving No One Behind” as Zambia works towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

UNIC Lusaka promotes better understanding SDGs among pupils

By Shiho Kuwahara, University Volunteer, UNIC Lusaka

In continued efforts to create awareness about the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Shiho (middle) presenting the SDGs to students.

Shiho Kuwahara (middle) presenting the SDGs to students.

among children and youth, UNIC Lusaka conducted educational outreach activities in three Lusaka-based schools (North Park, Great North Road Academy and Rhodes Park) from 12-14 February 2019. More than 200 eleventh and twelfth grade pupils participated in the activities.

The presentations focused on how pupils can contribute to the goals at their ages in their attainment. As an introduction, there was a short video of the background of SGDs to let them know about its history. Presenters explained each SDG and needed actions to achieve the goals with actual examples which are familiar with children’s daily life. Pupils were eager to learn about it and participated actively in all the sessions through questions and contributions.  A crucial point that all the goals are important and interlinked was made and that there, therefore, need to make progress on all of them in order to have sustainable development.

As part of the sessions, a lively quiz was given to assess the knowledge levels of the pupils. The pupils deepened their understanding of SDGs.

“Is it really possible to achieve these goals by 2030,”? asked one pupil and Rhodes Park School. It was later emphasized that progress on the SDGs depends on efforts and cooperation by everyone including governments and individuals.

The SDGs were adopted by the 193 UN Member States, including Zambia, at the Sustainable

Shiho Kuwahara, shares a light moment with students at Great North Road Academy.

Shiho, shares a light moment with students at Great North Road Academy.

Development Summit in New York in 2015. The 17 goals focus on the three interconnected elements of sustainable development: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection with the aim to make a better world by the year 2030. The first step to achieve the goals is to know about them, especially for youth because they are the future leaders. UNIC Lusaka will continue to work with UN agencies in Zambia to create awareness about the SDGs and encourage people to act for the Global Goals.

 

Worrisome risks lurk beneath solid global growth

By Elliott Harris

On the surface, the world economy remains on a steady trajectory moving into 2019. Headline

Elliot Harris, UN Chief Economist and Under Secretary General for Economic Development

Elliot Harris, UN Chief Economist and Under Secretary General for Economic Development

figures suggest that – while global growth has likely peaked – activity around the world will continue to expand at a solid pace. Several developed economies are operating close to their full potential with unemployment rates at historical lows.

Yet, headlines do not tell the whole story. Beneath the surface, a much more worrisome picture of the world economy emerges. The newly-released World Economic Situation and Prospects 2019illustrates how a combination of rising economic, social and environmental challenges hampers progress towards the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. There are several risk factors that could disrupt activity and inflict significant damage on longer-term development prospects. Over the past year, trade policy disputes have escalated, and financial vulnerabilities have increased as global liquidity tightens, casting a shadow over the outlook for 2019 and beyond.

Should such a downturn materialize, prospects are grim. Global private and public debt is at a record high, well above the level seen in the run-up to the global financial crisis. Interest rates remain very low in most developed economies, while central bank balance sheets are still bloated. With limited monetary and fiscal space, policymakers around the globe will struggle to react effectively to an economic downturn. And, given waning support for multilateral approaches, concerted actions – like those implemented in response to the 2008/09 crisis – may prove difficult to arrange.

Even if global growth remains robust, its benefits do not reach the places they are needed most. Incomes will stagnate or grow only marginally in 2019 in parts of Africa, Western Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Many commodity exporters are still grappling with the effects of the commodity price collapse of 2014-16. The challenges are most acute in Africa, where per capita growth has averaged only 0.3 per cent over the past five years. Given a rapidly growing population, the fight against poverty will require much faster economic growth and dramatic reductions in income inequality.

And, perhaps most importantly, the critical transition towards environmental sustainability is not happening fast enough. The nature of current growth is not compatible with holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. In fact, the impacts of climate change are becoming more widespread and severe. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events is increasing.Floods, coastal storm surges, droughts and heat waves are damaging vital infrastructure and causing large-scale displacements. The human and economic costs of such disasters fall overwhelmingly on low-income countries.

Many of the challenges before us are global in nature and require collective and cooperative policy action. Withdrawal into nationalism and unilateral action will only pose further setbacks for the global community, and especially for those already in danger of being left behind. Instead, policymakers need to work together to address the weaknesses of the current system and strengthen the multilateral framework.

The author is UN Chief Economist and and Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development

The UN Secretary General’s message on World Radio

13 February 2019

Radio is a powerful tool.

Even in today’s world of digital communications, radio reaches more people than any other media platform.

It conveys vital information and raises awareness on important issues.

And it is a personal, interactive platform where people can air their views, concerns, and grievances. Radio can create a community.

For the United Nations, especially our peacekeeping operations, radio is a vital way of informing, reuniting and empowering people affected by war.

On this World Radio Day, let us recognize the power of radio to promote dialogue, tolerance and peace.

Thank you.

Message in other UN official languages: ArabicChineseFrench, PortugueseRussianSpanish.

UN Secretary Generals Message on International Day of Women and Girls in Science

11 February 2019

Skills in science, technology, engineering and math drive innovation and are critical to achieving

The UN Secretary-General Mr. António Guterres

The UN Secretary-General Mr. António Guterres

the Sustainable Development Goals. Women and girls are vital in all these areas. Yet they remain woefully under-represented. Gender stereotypes, a lack of visible role models and unsupportive or even hostile policies and environments can keep them from pursuing these careers.

The world cannot afford to miss out on the contributions of half our population. We need concerted efforts to overcome these obstacles.

We must tackle misconceptions about girls’ abilities.

We must promote access to learning opportunities for women and girls, particularly in rural areas.

And we must do more to change workplace culture so that girls who dream of being scientists, engineers and mathematicians can enjoy fulfilling careers in these fields.

Let us ensure that every girl, everywhere, has the opportunity to realize her dreams, grow into her power and contribute to a sustainable future for all.

Message in other UN official languages: ArabicChineseFrenchRussian,Spanish.

The UN Secretary General- Message on The International Day of Zero Tolerance For Female Genital Mutilation

6 February 2019

Female genital mutilation is an abhorrent human rights violation affecting women and girls

The UN Secretary-General Mr. António Guterres

The UN Secretary-General Mr. António Guterres

around the world. It denies them their dignity, endangers their health and causes needless pain and suffering, even death.

Female genital mutilation is rooted in gender inequalities and power imbalances– and it sustains them by limiting opportunities for girls and women to realize their rights and full potential. An estimated 200 million women and girls alive today have been subject to this harmful practice. And every year, almost 4 million girls are at risk.

The Sustainable Development Goals call for the elimination of female genital mutilation by 2030. The United Nations joins hands with global, regional and national actors in supporting holistic and integrated initiatives to achieve this objective. Tackling FGM is also a central part of our efforts in the Spotlight Initiative, launched in partnership with the European Union to end all forms of violence against women and girls.

With strong political commitment, we are seeing positive change in several countries. However, if current trends persist, these advances will continue to be outpaced by rapid population growth where the practice is concentrated.

On this Day of Zero Tolerance, I call for increased, concerted and global action to end female genital mutilation and fully uphold the human rights of all women and girls.

Message in other UN official languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian,Spanish.

More information

Ending poverty is possible, but it means facing up to inequality: within and between countries

Op-ed by Liu Zhenmin, Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations

World leaders have committed to ending poverty everywhere for all people by 2030. Achieving this aim means facing up to the need for dramatic declines in inequalities – in income, in opportunity, in exposure to risk, across gender, between countries and within countries – over the next decade.

Inequality is a well-recognized barrier to poverty eradication, as well as many other

Mr. Liu become the UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs

Mr. Liu, UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs

development challenges. It features in multiple dimensions across the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—the universally adopted plan to promote prosperity and social well-being while protecting the environment. According to many metrics, income inequality among countries has declined somewhat in recent decades, driven primarily by strong growth in East Asian and South Asian economies.  But there are many countries—particularly in parts of Africa, Western Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean—where income levels have continued to fall further behind, exacerbating income inequalities between countries.

The latest United Nation’s analysis in the World Economic Situation and Prospects 2019indicates that per capita income levels essentially stagnated or declined in a total of 47 developing and transition economies last year. Most of these countries have been consistently falling behind for several decades. This poses an enormous challenge as countries strive to reduce poverty, develop essential infrastructure, create jobs and support economic diversification. Most of the lagging countries are highly dependent on commodities, stressing the importance of both diversification and effective management of natural resource wealth to tap into their development potential. Several countries have also suffered long-standing armed conflict or civil unrest and political instability.

If this trend continues, eradicating poverty and creating decent jobs for all will become increasingly out of reach. Weak economic performance is also linked to insufficient investment in quality education, health services, social protection, programs for marginalized groups and mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

Faster GDP growth alone will not necessarily lead to broad-based improvements in living standards. Deep inequalities also persist in the distribution of income within countries, acting as a major barrier to development progress.  High inequality within countries is associated with social exclusion and fragmentation; weaker institution-building and governance; and increased risk of violence and internal conflict.

Fundamental transformations are needed going forward, to narrow the income gaps between and within countries. According to UN estimates, without significant changes in behaviour, more than 7 percent of the global population may remain in poverty by the year 2030, including about 30 per cent of the populations in Africa and the least developed countries (LDCs).

In Africa, where the population is expanding at a rate of more than 2 per cent per year, reducing the level of extreme poverty to below 5 per cent by 2030 will require a combination of double digit GDP growth and dramatic declines in inequality; well-outside the realms of historical precedence.

Integrated and cross-cutting policy measures that both raise prospects for economic growth and reduce income inequalities are essential to shift the world towards a more sustainable and inclusive path. This includes investing in education, health care, resilience to climate change, and financial and digital inclusion, to support economic growth and job creation in the short-term, while promoting sustainable development in the long term.

Macroeconomic stability and a strong development-oriented policy framework, including a well-functioning and robust financial system, are key elements for successfully tackling inequality. Well-designed fiscal policies can help smooth the business cycle, provide public goods, correct market failures and directly influence the income distribution. Broadening access to quality education is also crucial, coupled with employment policies, such as raising minimum wages and expanding social protection. Prioritizing rural infrastructure development, through public investment in transport, agriculture and energy, can also support poverty alleviation and narrow inequalities within countries.

While there is no one-size-fits-all policy prescription that guarantees delivery of a more equal and prosperous society, one overarching message is clear: calls to eradicate poverty are meaningless without concerted and committed policy action to reduce inequality.

***

Mr. Liu become the Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs in July 2017. Prior to his appointment, he was the Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs of China since 2013. Mr. Liu brings to the position more than 30 years of experience in the diplomatic service, with a strong focus on the promotion of bilateral, regional and global issues. He was deeply involved for 10 years in climate change negotiations, including the conclusion of the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. 

Press Release: Holocaust Day – UN Resident Coordinator Janet Rogan calls for Love and Peace

MANY CALL FOR PEACE AND LOVE AS ZAMBIA MARKS THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF COMMEMORATION IN MEMORY OF THE VICTIMS OF THE HOLOCAUST

LUSAKA, 31 January 2019 – On 29 January 2019, United Nations Resident Coordinator Ms. Janet

UN Resident Coordinator Zambia, Ms. Janet Rogan

UN Resident Coordinator Zambia, Ms. Janet Rogan

Rogan spoke at a commemorative event in Lusaka to remember the victims of the Holocaust with a call for love and need to defend human rights. Six million Jews and other groups of people were killed during the Holocaust between 1941-1945 by the Nazi regime and their collaborators.

“It is necessary for us not only to remember the people who were mercilessly murdered during the holocaust, during the genocides, but also to think hard about the reasons why they were killed; to think about how the general population was incited against those people of difference. And it is necessary to do everything possible to teach ourselves and our children how to defend ourselves against such evil ideologies so that such crimes can never, ever again be perpetrated in our presence or our collective knowledge,” Ms Rogan said.

The event, organised by the UN Information Centre Lusaka, was held under the theme: ‘Holocaust Remembrance: Demand and Defend Your Human Rights.’
Minister of National Guidance and Religious Affairs, Reverend Godfridah Sumaili, MP, was guest of honour. In her speech, the Honourable Minister called upon youths to reject violence and instead contribute meaningfully to Zambia’s development.

“I call on youths to refuse to be used as tools to injure other people simply because they are different from one group…The youths should take their rightful place as future leaders and

A student makes comments reflecting upon the commemoration.

A student makes comments reflecting upon the commemoration.

seek meaningful participation in the development of Zambia. Zambia depends on youths as agents for change. Fighting is not one of the ways to participate in development,” Rev. Sumaili said.

The event involved informative exhibitions including a historical video narrating events and decisions that forever changed the world, and a multi-paneled exhibition where students read testimonies, viewed family photographs and learned about The Butterfly Project: stories from children and their families during the Holocaust.

Others who joined children and youth at the event in expressing their views on peace, unity, love and tolerance were a representative from the Council of Churches in Zambia, Zambia-Israel Initiative Bishop Peter Tande Mulenga, former Namwala Member of Parliament Dr. Ompie Nkumbuka-Liebenthal, Chairperson of the Council for Zambia Jewry Simon Zukas and other members of the Jewish Community in Zambia including Cynthia Zukas, Shalomi Abutbul, Izak Ephrati and Robert Liebenthal.

On 1st November 2005, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 60/7 designating 27th January as an annual International Day in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust. This day serves as an opportunity to raise awareness and bolster inclusivity among every person within their daily lives by continuing to thrive and to strive for better living standards together, undivided.

For more information, please contact:

United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) Lusaka
Mark Maseko, National Information Officer
P: +260-211-225-494  E: info.lusaka@unic.org

Zambian Students Learn About the Holocaust

By Shiho Kuwahara, University Volunteer, UNIC Lusaka

UNIC Lusaka organized a thought-provoking event on the International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust” at the University of Zambia Chapel in Zambia’s

Group photo of attendees.

Group photo of attendees.

capital, Lusaka. About 100 people, including 70 students from four secondary schools participated in the event at which the Minister of National Guidance and Religious Affairs, Rev Godfridah Sumaili was guest of honour. Other dignitaries included Ms. Janet Rogan, the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Zambia, Mr. Simon Zukas Chairperson of the Council for Zambia Jewry, Ms Victoria Chitundu, Director for Lusaka National Museum and representatives from the Jewish community in Zambia and other Faith-Based Organisations.

Rev Sumaili emphasized the importance of observing the Holocaust.

“This is a very important day as it helps us to save the coming generations from the scourge of unprecedented acts of genocide as witnessed when over six million Jews and other groups of people including Jehovah’s witnesses and gypsies were killed by the Nazi regime. Further, commemorating the Holocaust is important in reminding us of the need to protect and defend human rights,” she said.

Ms. Rogan said in her speech that it was necessary for all to not only remember the people who were mercilessly murdered during the holocaust, but also to think hard about the reasons why they were killed; to think about how the general population was incited against those people of difference. She called for need to do create awareness about need to speak and act evil ideologies so that crimes such as the Holocaust can never, ever again be perpetrated.

“To hold this kind of event is meaningful not only to honour millions of victims, but also to let people think about the value of peace to prevent the tragedy from occurring again,” she said.

Mr. Zukas shared that he lost family members during the Holocaust, a narration that left a few teary eyes in the audience. This was echoed by his wife Cynthia Zukas, who also spoke about similar losses of family members at the hands of the Nazi in concentration camps.

Pupils expressed the need for love, tolerance and unity. One pupil noted that through the event, she was able to better understand the Holocaust as it was her first-time ever hearing about these acts of genocide by the in Nazi regime. The children also observed an exhibition called Butterfly Project, a narrative about the Holocaust by children who survived the atrocities.

Picture gallery

UN Secretary-General’s remarks at UN Holocaust Memorial Ceremony

New York, 28 January 2019

[as delivered]

We are here together to remember the victims of the Holocaust – the six million Jews and many

The UN Secretary-General Mr. António Guterres

The UN Secretary-General Mr. António Guterres

others murdered during a period of unprecedented, calculated cruelty, when human dignity was cast aside for a racial ideology.

I extend a special welcome to the Holocaust survivors with us today, especially Mr. Marian Turski and Ms. Inge Auerbacher, who will share their testimony.

This International Day marks the liberation of the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp 74 years ago yesterday. I also pay tribute to the veterans here today for their role in bringing the war and Holocaust to an end.

Yesterday was, by the way, also the 75th anniversary of the lifting of the siege of Leningrad.  That prolonged the blockade — 872 days of siege, starvation and suffering – that was a horror within the horror.

As we remember, we also reaffirm our resolve to fight the hatred that still plagues our world today.

In fact, it is necessary – more and more – that we sound an alarm.

It is just three months since a man armed to the teeth entered the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh shouting “all Jews must die”.

He murdered 11 worshippers observing Shabbat.

It was the worst anti-Semitic attack in the history of the United States.

Last month at a Jewish cemetery near Strasbourg, in France, vandals smeared swastikas on dozens of tombstones and defaced a monument to Holocaust victims.

And just days ago in Bulgaria, stones were thrown through the window of Sofia’s central synagogue.

I would like to be able to say that these incidents were aberrations, or that they are only the last gasps of a prejudice that deserves to die.

But sadly, what we are instead seeing is the flame of a centuries-old fire gaining in intensity.

Not only is anti-Semitism still strong – it is getting worse.

We must rise up against rising anti-Semitism.

According to the Anti-Defamation League, anti-Semitic incidents in the United States increased by 57 per cent in 2017.

The European Union’s Fundamental Rights Agency reported last year that 28 per cent of Jews had experienced some form of harassment just for being Jewish.  Many added that fears for their safety have led them to stay away from Jewish events – or even to contemplate emigrating.

Another poll in Europe by CNN revealed the strong persistence of classic anti-Semitic motifs.

In fact, the old anti-Semitism is back.

At the same time, we are seeing attempts to rewrite the history of the Holocaust, to distort its magnitude and to sanitize the wartime records of leaders, citizens and societies.

Meanwhile, neo-Nazi groups are proliferating.

A recent Public Broadcasting System Frontline programme conducted an in-depth exploration of one of the extremist and white supremacist organizations in the United States that promote hatred against Jews, and also other minorities, homosexuals and others.

Their views are right out of “Mein Kampf”.  They have, by the way, a similar book written by their leader.

Their recruitment methods target the disaffected.

They seek out people with military experience – and encourage sympathizers to join the armed forces to gain weapons training.

And the massacre in Pittsburgh was precisely in keeping with their advocacy of violent, so-called “lone wolf” attacks.

Inevitably, where there is anti-Semitism, no one else is safe.  Across the world, we are seeing a disturbing rise in other forms of bigotry.

Attacks on Muslims in several societies are on the rise, sometimes even outpacing other forms of hatred.

Rohingyas, Yazidis and many others have faced persecution simply for who they are.

Intolerance today spreads at lightning speed across the Internet and social media.

Perhaps most disturbingly, hate is moving into the mainstream – in liberal democracies and authoritarian systems alike.

We have seen this throughout the debate on human mobility, which has featured a stream of invective, falsely linking refugees and migrants to terrorism and scapegoating them for many of society’s ills.

Major political parties are incorporating ideas from the fringes in their propaganda and electoral campaigns.

Parties once rightly considered pariahs are gaining influence over governments.

And where once some political figures used the so-called “dog whistle” to signal their followers, today they also feel able to trumpet their noxious views for all to hear.

Political discourse is being coarsened.

And with each broken norm, the pillars of humanity are weakened.

That is part of what Hannah Arendt identified as the path towards totalitarianism.

We should not exaggerate the comparisons to the 1930s.

But equally let us not ignore the similarities.

We see some societies wanting to turn back the clock on diversity.

Political establishments have a profound and growing trust deficit.

The demonization of others rages on.

Such hatred is easy to uncork, and very hard to put back in the bottle.

One urgent challenge today is to heed the lessons of history and the Holocaust.

First, by keeping memory alive.

A recent poll in Europe found that one third of people say they know little or nothing about the Holocaust.

Among millennials, some two-thirds had no idea Auschwitz was a death camp.

As the number of survivors dwindles, it falls to us all to carry their testimony to future generations.  This is our duty and we must make sure that what the memory of survivors is able to tell will persist forever.

Education is crucial – about the Holocaust, about genocide and crimes against humanity, about racism and the history of slavery.

The United Nations and the Holocaust Outreach Programme has activities in dozens of countries, and we are strongly committed to expanding its reach.

And, we must stand up to those who disseminate hatred.

I have asked my Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide to assess the efforts of the UN system in countering hate speech and to devise a global plan of action to deepen this essential work.

We had, just last Saturday in Park East Synagogue, a very moving testimony from Rabbi Schneier proposing that we should gather Ministers of Education all over the world to make sure that in schools these questions are clearly introduced in the curricula and that students will never be able to deny these facts.

Because indeed, countering hate speech is essential to preventing hate crimes.

That means rejecting hate in schools and workplaces, at sporting events and on the street.

And it means reaffirming universal values and equal rights.

Finally, we must bring those rights to life.

Proclaiming principles is not enough.

Vilifying the violators is not enough.

We must go further by working for a fair globalization, by building democratic societies, and by addressing the roots of the anxieties and angers that make people susceptible to populism and demagoguery.

Governments and international organizations must show they care and make rights real in the lives of all.

One of the great shocks of the Second World War was how a society of such high attainment proved so ripe for Hitler’s venom.

In his diaries of the years from 1933 to 1945, Victor Klemperer wrote, and I quote:

“Curious: At the very moment modern technology annuls all frontiers and distances…, the most extreme nationalism is raging.”  This was said in the ‘30s.

We are not immune to the same risks today.

Our response must be clear: to strengthen all we do to build the defences, the laws and the mindsets that will uphold the dignity of all, for all time, having the fight against anti-semitism in the front lines.

Thank you very much.